Before concluding an agreement with a neighbouring state, the Schengen state must obtain the agreement of the European Commission, which must confirm that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring state at least grants reciprocal rights to EEA and Swiss nationals residing on the Schengen side of the border region and accepts the repatriation of persons who abuse the border agreement. From 2015[update], Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an association agreement with the EU. Andorra`s ambassador to Spain, Jaume Gaytán, said he hoped the agreement would contain provisions to make the Schengen agreement associate member states.  However, certain third-country nationals are allowed to stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without having to apply for an extended residence visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for a visa for an extended stay.  In addition, Article 20(2) of the Agreement implementing the Schengen Agreement provides that this remains applicable “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by certain signatory States with other countries before the entry into force of the Convention. As a result, for example, New Zealand nationals can stay up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) that had already concluded bilateral visa waiver agreements with the New Zealand government before the entry into force of the agreement, without the New Zealand government having if an extended stay visa needs to be applied for. However, for travel to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply over a period of 180 days.            [Excessive citations] After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced in mid-March the total closure of their national borders, Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission, said: “Some controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not considered by the World Health Organization to be the most effective. In addition, they have strong social and economic repercussions, disrupting people`s lives and affairs across borders.  Von der Leyen also apologized to Italy, amid widespread Italian discontent with Europe`s lack of solidarity.  Until the end of March 2020, almost all internal Schengen borders were closed for unnecessary travel. Until July 2020, most of the borders closed because of the coronavirus were reopened.
Ireland participates in some of the police cooperation agreements that are part of the Schengen Agreement. From 2020, Ireland will participate in certain aspects of SIS II, the second generation of the Schengen Information System – see “Police and Security” below for more information. The Schengen area initially had its legal basis outside the European Economic Community at the time, since it was created by a sub-community of Member States of the Community by means of two international agreements: authorisations are issued for a period of validity of between one and five years and allow a stay in the border area for a maximum period of three months. Permits can only be issued to legitimate residents of the border area who have been in the border area for at least one year (or more, if the bilateral agreement so provides). Applicants for approval must demonstrate that they have legitimate reasons for frequently crossing an external land border under the local border transport regime. Schengen States must keep a central register of authorisations issued and allow other Schengen States immediate access to relevant data.. . . .
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